Home TECH NEWS A new mathematical shortcut helps describe black hole collisions

A new mathematical shortcut helps describe black hole collisions



What kind of situation will produce such a merger? Researchers are not sure, because this is a new open frontier in the universe. But there are several possibilities.

First, astronomers can imagine a collision of a medium-mass black hole with a mass of about 80 or 100 solar masses with a smaller black hole the size of a star with a mass of about 5 solar masses.

Another possibility is the collision between a garden-like stellar black hole and a relatively insignificant black hole left over from the Big Bang.A “primitive” black hole. These may be only 1% of the mass of the sun, and most Black holes detected by LIGO So far, it weighs more than 10 solar masses.

Earlier this year, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics used Field and Khanna’s alternative models to view LIGO data, looking for data from Mergers involving primitive black holesAlthough they did not find any black holes, they were able to more precisely limit the possible abundance of this hypothetical black hole.

In addition, Lisa, A planned space gravitational wave observatory, may one day witness a merger between ordinary black holes and supermassive variants at the center of galaxies—some galaxies have a mass equivalent to one billion or more suns. The future of LISA is full of uncertainty; its earliest launch date is 2035, and its funding status is unclear. However, if it does launch, we may see a merger with a quality ratio of more than 1 million.

breaking point

Some in the field, including Hughes, described the success of the new model as “the unreasonable validity of the point particle approximation”, emphasizing that the validity of the model at low mass ratios is a real mystery. Why can researchers ignore the key details of smaller black holes and still get the correct answer?

“It tells us something about underlying physics,” Khanna said, although what it is is still curious. “We don’t have to worry that two objects surrounded by the event horizon may be distorted and interact in strange ways.” But no one knows why.

Without an answer, Field and Khanna are trying to extend their model to more realistic situations. In a paper scheduled to be published on the preprint server arxiv.org earlier this summer, the researchers made some rotations of the larger black hole, which is expected in the real world of astrophysics. Similarly, their model is in good agreement with the numerical relativity simulation results when the mass ratio is as low as 3.

They next plan to consider black holes approaching each other in elliptical orbits rather than perfect circular orbits. They also plan to work with Hughes to introduce the concept of “misaligned orbits”-the situation where black holes are skewed relative to each other and run on different geometric planes.

Finally, they hope to learn from their model by trying to break the model. Can it work with a quality ratio of 2 or lower? Field and Cana wanted to find out. “When people see an approximate method failing, they will have confidence in it,” said Richard Price, A physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “When you do an approximation to get surprisingly good results, you will doubt if you are cheating and unconsciously use a result you shouldn’t get.” He added that if Field and Khanna pushed their model to The tipping point, “Then you really know what you are doing is not cheating — you just have a better approximation than you expected.”

ability Reprinted with authorization Quanta Magazine, Edit independent publications Simmons Foundation Its mission is to improve the public’s understanding of science by covering research developments and trends in mathematics, physics, and life sciences.

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